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The art of game design: a book of lenses

By: Schell, Jesse.
Publisher: Boca Raton CRC Press 2015Edition: 2nd ed.Description: xliv, 555 p.ISBN: 9781466598645.Subject(s): Computer games - Design | Internet gamesDDC classification: 794.81536 Summary: Good game design happens when you view your game from as many perspectives as possible. Written by one of the world's top game designers, The Art of Game Design presents 100+ sets of questions, or different lenses, for viewing a game’s design, encompassing diverse fields such as psychology, architecture, music, visual design, film, software engineering, theme park design, mathematics, puzzle design, and anthropology. This Second Edition of a Game Developer Front Line Award winner: • Describes the deepest and most fundamental principles of game design • Demonstrates how tactics used in board, card, and athletic games also work in top-quality video games • Contains valuable insight from Jesse Schell, the former chair of the International Game Developers Association and award-winning designer of Disney online games (https://www.crcpress.com/The-Art-of-Game-Design-A-Book-of-Lenses-Second-Edition/Schell/9781466598645)
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Books Vikram Sarabhai Library
Slot 2250 (2 Floor, East Wing) Non-fiction 794.81536 S2A7-2015 (Browse shelf) Available 191994

Table of Contents

Table of Lenses

Acknowledgments

Hello

1. In the Beginning, There Is the Designer

•Magic Words
• What Skills Does a Game Designer Need?
• The Most Important Skill
• The Five Kinds of Listening
• The Secret of the Gifted
• Other Reading to Consider

2. The Designer Creates an Experience

•The Game Is Not the Experience
•Is This Unique to Games?
•Three Practical Approaches to Chasing Rainbows
•Psychology
•Anthropology
•Design
•Introspection: Powers, Perils, and Practice
•Peril #1: Introspection Can Lead to False Conclusions about Reality
•Peril #2: What Is True of My Experiences May Not Be True for Others
• Dissect Your Feelings
• Defeating Heisenberg
• Analyze Memories
• Two Passes
• Sneak Glances
• Observe Silently
• Essential Experience
• All That’s Real Is What You Feel

3. The Experience Takes Place in a Venue

•The Shifting Sands of Platform
• Private Venues
• The Hearth
• The Workbench
• The Reading Nook
• Public Venues
• The Theater
• The Arena
• The Museum
• Half Private/Half Public Venues
• The Gaming Table
• The Playground
• Anywhere
• Venues Mixed and Matched
• Other Reading to Consider

4. The Experience Rises Out of a Game

•A Rant about Definitions
• So What Is a Game?
• No, Seriously, What Is a Game?
• Problem Solving 101
• The Fruits of Our Labor
• Other Reading to Consider

5. The Game Consists of Elements

•What Are Little Games Made Of?
• The Four Basic Elements
• Skin and Skeleton

6. The Elements Support a Theme

•Mere Games
•Unifying Themes
•Resonance
•Back to Reality
•Other Reading to Consider

7. The Game Begins with an Idea

•Inspiration
• State the Problem
• How to Sleep
• Your Silent Partner
• Subconscious Tip #1: Pay Attention
• Subconscious Tip #2: Record Your Ideas
• Subconscious Tip #3: Manage Its Appetites (Judiciously)
• Subconscious Tip #4: Sleep
• Subconscious Tip #5: Don’t Push Too Hard
• A Personal Relationship
• Sixteen Nitty-Gritty Brainstorming Tips
• Brainstorm Tip #1: The Write Answer
• Brainstorm Tip #2: Write or Type?
• Brainstorm Tip #3: Sketch
• Brainstorm Tip #4: Toys
• Brainstorm Tip #5: Change Your Perspective
• Brainstorm Tip #6: Immerse Yourself
• Brainstorm Tip #7: Crack Jokes
• Brainstorm Tip #8: Spare No Expense
• Brainstorm Tip #9: The Writing on the Wall
• Brainstorm Tip #10: The Space Remembers
• Brainstorm Tip #11: Write Everything
• Brainstorm Tip #12: Number Your Lists
• Brainstorm Tip #13: Destroy Your Assumptions
• Brainstorm Tip #14: Mix and Match Categories
• Brainstorm Tip #15: Talk to Yourself
• Brainstorm Tip #16: Find a Partner
• Look At All These Ideas! Now What?
• Other Reading to Consider

8. The Game Improves through Iteration

•Choosing an Idea
•The Eight Filters
•The Rule of the Loop
•A Short History of Software Engineering
•Danger—Waterfall—Keep Back
•Barry Boehm Loves You
•The Agile Manifesto
•Risk Assessment and Prototyping
•Example: Prisoners of Bubbleville
•Prisoners of Bubbleville: Design Brief
•Ten Tips for Productive Prototyping
•Prototyping Tip #1: Answer a Question
•Prototyping Tip #2: Forget Quality
•Prototyping Tip #3: Don’t Get Attached
•Prototyping Tip #4: Prioritize Your Prototypes
•Prototyping Tip #5: Parallelize Prototypes Productively
•Prototyping Tip #6: It Doesn’t Have to Be Digital
•Tetris: A Paper Prototype
•Halo: A Paper Prototype
•Prototyping Tip #7: It Doesn’t Have to Be Interactive
•Prototyping Tip #8: Pick a "Fast Loop" Game Engine
•Prototyping Tip #9: Build the Toy First
•Prototyping Tip #10: Seize Opportunities for More Loops
•Closing the Loop
•Loop 1: "New Racing" Game
•Loop 2: "Racing Subs" Game
•Loop 3: "Flying Dinos" Game
•How Much Is Enough?
• Your Secret Fuel
• Other Reading to Consider

9. The Game Is Made for a Player

•Einstein’s Violin
• Project Yourself
• Demographics
• The Medium Is the Misogynist?
• Five Things Males Like to See in Games
• Five Things Females Like to See in Games
• Psychographics
• LeBlanc’s Taxonomy of Game Pleasures
• Bartle’s Taxonomy of Player Types
• More Pleasure: MORE!
• Other Reading to Consider

10. The Experience Is in the Player’s Mind

•Modeling
• Focus
• Empathy
• Imagination
• Other Reading to Consider

11. The Player’s Mind Is Driven by the Player’s Motivation

•Needs…
• And More Needs
• Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation
• Wanna vs. Hafta
• Novelty
• Judgment
• Other Reading to Consider

12. Some Elements Are Game Mechanics

•Mechanic 1: Space
•Nested Spaces
•Zero Dimensions
•Mechanic 2: Time
•Discrete and Continuous Time
•Clocks and Races
•Controlling Time
•Mechanic 3: Objects, Attributes, and States
•Secrets
•Mechanic 4: Actions
•Emergent Gameplay
•Mechanic 5: Rules
•Parlett’s Rule Analysis
•Modes
•Enforcer
•Cheatability
•The Most Important Rule
•Wrapping Up Rules
•Mechanic 6: Skill
•Real vs. Virtual Skills
•Enumerating Skills
•Mechanic 7: Chance
•Invention of Probability
•Ten Rules of Probability Every Game Designer Should Know
•Rule #1: Fractions Are Decimals Are Percents
•Rule #2: Zero to One—and That’s It!
•Rule #3: "Looked For" Divided By "Possible Outcomes" Equals Probability
•Rule #4: Enumerate!
•Rule #5: In Certain Cases, OR Means Add
•Rule #6: In Certain Cases, AND Means Multiply
•Rule #7: One Minus "Does" = "Doesn’t"
•Rule #8: The Sum of Multiple Linear Random Selections is NOT a Linear Random Selection!
•Rule #9: Roll the Dice
•Rule #10: Geeks Love Showing Off (Gombaud’s Law)
•Expected Value
•Consider Values Carefully
• Human Element
• Skill and Chance Get Tangled
• Other Reading to Consider

13. Game Mechanics Must Be in Balance

•The Twelve Most Common Types of Game Balance
• Balance Type #1: Fairness
• Symmetrical Games
• Asymmetrical Games
• Biplane Battle
• Rock, Paper, Scissors
• Balance Type #2: Challenge vs. Success
• Balance Type #3: Meaningful Choices
• Triangularity
• Balancing Type #4: Skill vs. Chance
• Balancing Type #5: Head vs. Hands
• Balance Type #6: Competition vs. Cooperation
• Balance Type #7: Short vs. Long
• Balance Type #8: Rewards
• Balance Type #9: Punishment
• Balance Type #10: Freedom vs. Controlled Experience
• Balance Type #11: Simple vs. Complex
• Natural vs. Artificial Balancing
• Elegance
• Character
• Balance Type #12: Detail vs. Imagination
• Game Balancing Methodologies
• Balancing Game Economies
• Dynamic Game Balancing
• The Big Picture
• Other Reading to Consider

14. Game Mechanics Support Puzzles

•The Puzzle of Puzzles
•Aren’t Puzzles Dead?
•Good Puzzles
•Puzzle Principle #1: Make the Goal Easily Understood
•Puzzle Principle #2: Make It Easy to Get Started
•Puzzle Principle #3: Give a Sense of Progress
•Puzzle Principle #4: Give a Sense of Solvability
•Puzzle Principle #5: Increase Difficulty Gradually
•Puzzle Principle #6: Parallelism Lets the Player Rest
•Puzzle Principle #7: Pyramid Structure Extends Interest
•Puzzle Principle #8: Hints Extend Interest
•Puzzle Principle #9: Give the Answer!
•Puzzle Principle #10: Perceptual Shifts Are a Double-Edged Sword
• A Final Piece
• Other Reading to Consider

15. Players Play Games through an Interface

•Between Yin and Yang
•Breaking It Down
•The Loop of Interaction
•Juiciness
•Primality
•Channels of Information
•Step 1: List and Prioritize Information
•Step 2: List Channels
•Step 3: Map Information to Channels
•Step 4: Review Use of Dimensions
•Modes
•Mode Tip #1: Use as Few Modes as Possible
•Mode Tip #2: Avoid Overlapping Modes
•Mode Tip #3: Make Different Modes Look as Different as Possible
• Other Interface Tips
• Interface Tip #1: Steal
• Interface Tip #2: Customize
• Interface Tip #3: Design around Your Physical Interface
• Interface Tip #4: Theme Your Interface
• Interface Tip #5: Sound Maps to Touch
• Interface Tip #6: Balance Options and Simplicity with Layers
• Interface Tip #7: Use Metaphors
• Interface Tip #8: If It Looks Different, It Should Act Different
• Interface Tip #9: Test, Test, Test!
• Interface Tip #10: Break the Rules to Help Your Player
• Other Reading to Consider

16. Experiences Can Be Judged by Their Interest Curves

•My First Lens
• Interest Curves
• Patterns inside Patterns
• What Comprises Interest?
• Factor 1: Inherent Interest
• Factor 2: Poetry of Presentation
• Factor 3: Projection
• Interest Factor Examples
• Putting It All Together
• Other Reading to Consider

17. One Kind of Experience Is the Story

•Story/Game Duality
• Myth of Passive Entertainment
• The Dream
• The Reality
• Real-World Method 1: The String of Pearls
• Real-World Method 2: The Story Machine
• The Problems
• Problem #1: Good Stories Have Unity
• Problem #2: The Combinatorial Explosion
• Problem #3: Multiple Endings Disappoint
• Problem #4: Not Enough Verbs
• Problem #5: Time Travel Makes Tragedy Obsolete
• The Dream Reborn
• Story Tips for Game Designers
• Story Tip #1: Goals, Obstacles, and Conflicts
• Story Tip #2: Make It Real
• Story Tip #3: Provide Simplicity and Transcendence
• Story Tip #4: Consider the Hero’s Journey
• Vogler’s Synopsis of the Hero’s Journey
• Story Tip #5: Put Your Story to Work!
• Story Tip #6: Keep Your Story World Consistent
• Story Tip #7: Make Your Story World Accessible
• Story Tip #8: Use Clichés Judiciously
• Story Tip #9: Sometimes a Map Brings a Story to Life
• Other Reading to Consider

18. Story and Game Structures Can Be Artfully Merged with Indirect Control

•The Feeling of Freedom
• Indirect Control Method #1: Constraints
• Indirect Control Method #2: Goals
• Indirect Control Method #3: Interface
• Indirect Control Method #4: Visual Design
• Indirect Control Method #5: Characters
• Indirect Control Method #6: Music
• Collusion
• Other Reading to Consider

19. Stories and Games Take Place in Worlds

•Transmedia Worlds
• The Power of Pokemon
• Properties of Transmedia Worlds
• Transmedia Worlds Are Powerful
• Transmedia Worlds Are Long Lived
• Transmedia Worlds Evolve over Time
• What Successful Transmedia Worlds Have in Common

20. Worlds Contain Characters

•The Nature of Game Characters
• Novel Characters
• Movie Characters
• Game Characters
• Avatars
• The Ideal Form
• The Blank Slate
• Creating Compelling Game Characters
• Character Tip #1: List Character Functions
• Character Tip #2: Define and Use Character Traits
• Character Tip #3: Use the Interpersonal Circumplex
• Character Tip #4: Make a Character Web
• Archie
• Veronica
• Betty
• Reggie
• Jughead
• Character Tip #5: Use Status
• Character Tip #6: Use the Power of the Voice
• Character Tip #7: Use the Power of the Face
• Character Tip #8: Powerful Stories Transform Characters
• Character Tip #9: Let Your Characters Surprise Us
• Character Tip #10: Avoid the Uncanny Valley
• Other Reading to Consider

21. Worlds Contain Spaces

•The Purpose of Architecture
• Organizing Your Game Space
• A Word about Landmarks
• Christopher Alexander Is a Genius
• Alexander’s Fifteen Properties of Living Structures
• Real vs. Virtual Architecture
• Know How Big
• Third-Person Distortion
• Level Design
• Other Reading to Consider

22. The Look and Feel of a World Is Defined by Its Aesthetics

•Monet Refuses the Operation
• The Value of Aesthetics
• Learning to See
• How to Let Aesthetics Guide Your Design
• How Much Is Enough?
• Use Audio
• Balancing Art and Technology
• Other Reading to Consider

23. Some Games Are Played with Other Players

•We Are Not Alone
• Why We Play with Others
• Other Reading to Consider

24. Other Players Sometimes Form Communities

•More than Just Other Players
• Ten Tips for Strong Communities
• Community Tip #1: Foster Friendships
• Community Tip #2: Put Conflict at the Heart
• Community Tip #3: Use Architecture to Shape your Community
• Community Tip #4: Create Community Property
• Community Tip #5: Let Players Express Themselves
• Community Tip #6: Support Three Levels
• Community Tip #7: Force Players to Depend on Each Other
• Community Tip #8: Manage Your Community
• Community Tip #9: Obligation to Others Is Powerful
• Community Tip #10: Create Community Events
• The Challenge of Griefing
• The Future of Game Communities
• Other Reading to Consider

25. The Designer Usually Works with a Team

•The Secret of Successful Teamwork
• If You Can’t Love the Game, Love the Audience
• Designing Together
• Team Communication
• Other Reading to Consider

26. The Team Sometimes Communicates through Documents

•The Myth of the Game Design Document
•The Purpose of Documents
• Memory
• Communication
• Types of Game Documents
• Design
• Engineering
• Art
• Production
• Writing
• Players
• So, Where Do I Start?
• Other Reading to Consider

27. Good Games Are Created through Playtesting

•Playtesting
•My Terrible Secret
•Playtest Question the First: Why?
•Playtest Question the Second: Who?
•Playtest Question the Third: Where?
•Playtest Question the Fourth: What?
•The First What: Things You Know You Are Looking For
•The Second What: Things You Don’t Know You Are Looking For
•Playtest Question the Fifth: How?
• Should You Even Be There?
• What Do You Tell Them Up Front?
• Where Do You Look?
• What Other Data Should You Collect During Play?
• Will I Disturb the Players Midgame?
• What Data Will I Collect after the Play Session?
• Surveys
• Interviews
• Other Reading to Consider

28. The Team Builds a Game with Technology

•Technology, At Last
• Foundational vs. Decorational
• Mickey’s First Cartoon
• Abalone
• Sonic the Hedgehog
• Myst
• Journey
• Ragdoll Physics
• The Touch Revolution
• The Hype Cycle
• The Innovator’s Dilemma
• The Law of Divergence
• The Singularity
• Look into Your Crystal Ball
• Other Reading to Consider

29. Your Game Will Probably Have a Client

•Who Cares What the Client Thinks?
• Coping with Bad Suggestions
• Not That Rock
• The Three Layers of Desire
• Firenze, 1498
• Other Reading to Consider

30. The Designer Gives the Client a Pitch

•Why Me?
• A Negotiation of Power
• The Hierarchy of Ideas
• Twelve Tips for a Successful Pitch
• Pitch Tip #1: Get in the Door
• Pitch Tip #2: Show You Are Serious
• Pitch Tip #3: Be Organized
• Pitch Tip #4: Be Passionate!!!!!
• Pitch Tip #5: Assume Their Point of View
• Pitch Tip #6: Design the Pitch
• Pitch Tip #7: Know All the Details
• Pitch Tip #8: Exude Confidence
• Pitch Tip #9: Be Flexible
• Pitch Tip #10: Rehearse
• Pitch Tip #11: Get Them to Own It
• Pitch Tip #12: Follow Up
• Hey, What about Kickstarter?
• Other Reading to Consider

31. The Designer and Client Want the Game to Make a Profit

•Love and Money
• Know Your Business Model
• Retail
• Direct Download
• Free to Play
• Know Your Competition
• Know Your Audience
• Learn the Language
• General Game Business Terms
• Free to Play Business Terms
• Know the Top Sellers
• The Importance of Barriers
• Other Reading to Consider

32. Games Transform Their Players

•How Do Games Change Us?
• Can Games Be Good For You?
• Emotional Maintenance
• Connecting
• Exercise
• Education
• Giving the Brain What It Wants
• Facts
• Problem Solving
• Systems of Relationships
• New Insights
• Curiosity
• Creating Teachable Moments
• Transformational Games
• Transformational Tip #1: Define Your Transformation
• Transformational Tip #2: Find Great Subject Matter Experts
• Transformational Tip #3: What Does the Instructor Need?
• Transformational Tip #4: Don’t Do Too Much
• Transformational Tip #5: Assess Transformation Appropriately
• Transformational Tip #6: Choose the Right Venue
• Transformational Tip #7: Accept the Realities of the Market
• Can Games Be Bad For You?
• Violence
• Addiction
• Experiences
• Other Reading to Consider

33. Designers Have Certain Responsibilities

•The Danger of Obscurity
• Being Accountable
• Your Hidden Agenda
• The Secret Hidden in Plain Sight
• The Ring
• Other Reading to Consider

34. Each Designer Has a Purpose

• The Deepest Theming
• Goodbye
• Endnotes
• Bibliography
• Index




Good game design happens when you view your game from as many perspectives as possible. Written by one of the world's top game designers, The Art of Game Design presents 100+ sets of questions, or different lenses, for viewing a game’s design, encompassing diverse fields such as psychology, architecture, music, visual design, film, software engineering, theme park design, mathematics, puzzle design, and anthropology. This Second Edition of a Game Developer Front Line Award winner:

• Describes the deepest and most fundamental principles of game design

• Demonstrates how tactics used in board, card, and athletic games also work in top-quality video games

• Contains valuable insight from Jesse Schell, the former chair of the International Game Developers Association and award-winning designer of Disney online games

(https://www.crcpress.com/The-Art-of-Game-Design-A-Book-of-Lenses-Second-Edition/Schell/9781466598645)

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